Spain 1936/1939, what are the anarchist posters?
Un grito pegado en la pared ! A shout posted on the wall !
With a quick glimpse of the eye we are able to date a poster edited: in 1968 by the Atelier des Beaux-Arts; during the Chinese cultural revolution, or during the Hippie era on the West Coast of the United-States. As opposed to these examples (and to the myth), in Spain between 1936 and 1939, there was neither graphic unity nor the creation of a particular style despite being tied to a major cultural event of the 20th century. This is perhaps unfortunate, but the Spanish posters produced were deeply rooted in styles which were already predominant in the mid-1930s: advertising posters and Stalinist and fascist propaganda posters (1).
For some sociologists, “we” learn much about the social context of a neighbourhood or city by paying close attention to what its walls have to say. What do the walls of red and black Spain have to tell?
Even a superficial analysis of the anarchist posters edited in Spain between 1936 and 1939 reveal much more than the simple compilation of these “works” in a catalogue:
“The revolutionary posters were everywhere, flaming from these in clean reds and blues that made the few remaining advertisements look like daubs of mud.” Georges Orwell in Homage to Catalonia.
These posters bring with them a new element to understand this period: colour. It brings life and humanity to characters which up until then had been represented only in sepia.
Conversely, their dates are very imprecise. The main sources provide us only with the year in which they were printed (except those tied to a particular event: congresses, specific festivities, demonstrations, etc.). But as Carles Fontseré (2) has pointed out, the graphic design and texts cannot be removed from the political, social, and military contexts of the period in which each poster was created.
The anarchist posters cannot be distinguished by a particular graphic design or signature. Above all, it is the themes addressed and the total autonomy of the commissioning bodies which differentiated them.