Chronology

  • 1864, creation of the International Workingmen's Association (A.I.T). which will be under the triple influence of the Marxists, the mutualists – “proudhoniens” (Joseph Proudon’s followers) and anti-authoritarian (which will become the anarchists).

  • 1872, congress of Saint-Imier (Swiss). The French, Italian, Jura, Spanish sections, lay the foundations for the organized social anarchism.

  • 1901, Francisco Ferrer opens the first modern Schools which are inspired by developed educational experiments, in France, by Sébastien Faure, Paul Robin, etc.

  • 1910, creation of the CNT from the groups stemming from the Spanish section of the International.

  • 1911, Francisco Ferrer is legally “murdered”, in spite of immense international demonstrations.

  • 1919-1921, the CNT account 700 000 members. It participates in several meetings during the creation of the International of the red syndicates in Moscow. The delegate Angel Pastana, Gaston Leval, refuse the submission to the Bolshevism.

  • 1922, creation of the International Association of the Workers who group together(include) the anarcho-union organizations of which the CNT; the revolutionary union Committees (CGT-U / France); FAUD (Germany); USI (Italy); BAG (Sweden); CGT (Portugal); FOR A (Argentina), etc.

  • 1922, Salvador Segui (steering of the CNT) is murdered by “pistorellos”. Groups of libertarians “affinitaires” (B. Durruti, the Brothers Ascaso, G. Oliver, Has. Ortiz) form to defend the activists and the anarchistic works against the employers' terrorism: Nosotros and Los Solidarios are the most known.

  • 1927, birth of the Iberian Anarchistic Union (FAI)

  • April, 1931, birth of the Republic, king Alphonse XIII leaves Spain. A coalition “républicano-socialist” wins the elections. The first groups of anarchistic women get organized within the CNT.

  • 1931-1934, cycle of the uprisings libertarians: in Andalusia (Casas Viejas); in Catalonia, in Aragon, in Asturies (in October, 1934). This last one will be wildly repressed (more than 1 000 deaths).

  • 1932, creation of the Union of the Iberian Youths Libertarians (FJIL)

  • October, 1933, creation of Phalanxes by Firstly of Will Rivet (Spanish fascist organization). The Phalanx negotiates with Mussolini an agreement of mutual aid.

  • November, 1934 - 1936, return of the right-hand side in the power: GAVE UP it. More than 100 000 persons are imprisoned among which most are the libertarians. The capital punishment for “social offences” is restored.

  • . February, 1935, foundation of the Labor Party of Marxist Unification (anti-Stalinist Marxist).

  • January-February, 1936, dissolution of the assembly, then elections. Exceptionally the CNT will not campaign in favour of the abstention. Victoiry of Frente Popular: PSOE; republican democrats; “catalanistes”; PCE, POUM, … According to its commitments the democrats frees the political prisoners.

  • May 15th, 1936, Congress of the CNT in Saragossa: adoption of the communism libertarian. The CNT is the first labor-union strength in Spain (more than a million of members).

  • April, 1936, foundation of the review Mujeres Libres (free women) by activists of the CNT.

  • May June, 1936, numerous strikes on the initiative of the CNT. The tension increases between the government and the union activists and on the other hand mobilization of the right and the army. The government makes imprison certain labor-union leaders of the CNT of whom Cipriano Mera (general strike of the building in Madrid).

  • July 17th, uprising of the army in Morocco, call to the mobilization of the CNT and the UGT. The republican government refuses to give weapons to labor unions.

  • July 18th, fascist uprising. In Canary Islands general Franco, “watched” by the libertarians, escapes from few in an attack organized by the local CNT, he goes to Spain.

  • . July 19th, labor counter-offensive in all the big cities.

  • July 21st, creation of the central committee of militias in Barcelona (chaired by Garcia Oliver - CNT). It includes all the workers', revolutionary and republican organizations. It manages de facto Catalonia. Departure of the militiaman first Columns-CNT and UGT-towards cities and provinces controlled by the fascists.

  • July-August, 1936, against the advice of International Communist, thousands of foreign volunteers: French people, Italians, Germans, English people, integrate the labor militias to fight the fascism. Georges Orwell (Tribute in Catalonia), Benjamin Perret (of the surrealist group), philosopher Simone Weil participate in the columns of the POUM or the CNT. The French and English governments of democrats advocate the not intervention. The CNT will say: “while Hitler and Mussolini send troops and tanks in Franco, Léon Blum proposes us ambulances!”.

  • July-August, 1936, the local, regional congresses (CNT and UGT) of farmers and industries pronounce the collectivization of lands, factories and public services (health, transport, education, culture, electricity). The communism libertarian is proclaimed in numerous municipalities, and cantons. In certain cantons the money is abolished. Creation of the New School Unified of Catalonia (CENU) being inspired by the pedagogy of Francisco Ferrer.

  • Summer, 1936, entered by the anarchists all the republican “official” authorities.

  • Autumn, 1936, the Beginning of the “battle of Madrid”. Decided by Stalin and managed by André Marti (nicknamed the butcher of Albacete), on the first international brigades arrive on the front of Madrid. The republican government avoids Madrid to settle down in Valencia. It exchanges the gold of the Bank of Spain for weapons with Stalin. Creation of the councils of defense of Aragon and Asturias (livened up by the CNT) and of the Junta of defense of Madrid.

  • November 19th, died from Buenaventura Durruti on the front in Madrid.

  • Winter 1936-1937, in spite of the victory of the anti-fascists in Madrid, first lapels of the militias the advance of which is stopped by the lack of heavy armament (aviation, tanks, artillery). Hitler sends the division “Condor” (5 000 men) in Cadiz to help Franco. The government Blum forbids “officially” the passage of the volunteers aimed at the “republican” zones.

  • The communists begin their systematic smear campaign of militias, communities agrarian and industrial libertarians and especially anarchistic and Trotskyist organizations. The POUM is excluded from the “majority” of Catalonia. A congress of the PCE in Valencia(Valence) denounces(cancels) the POUM as a fascist organization. Stalin suggests merging the PSOE (socialist) and the PCE (communist). The republican weapons (Soviet citizens) are not distributed to the militias of the CNT and the POUM.

  • February, 1937, plenary session of the confederate columns and the libertarians on the initiative of the Iron column. Theme: the militarization of militias wanted by the republican government and approved - without internal debate by the national Committee of the CNT. Of numerous activists libertarians refuse the forced incorporation, the compulsory conscription and the militarization. The governmental censorship expands in the press libertarian, in April certain newspapers libertarians are forbidden.

  • Mars 1937, the second anti-fascist victory in Madrid. The Italian fascists are routed in Guadalajara. The “Columns of the Center” of the CNT take a dominating part in this victory.

  • Spring, 1937, the pro-Franco troops launch an offensive in the pocket of the northwest: Asturias and Basque Country, the city of Guernica is bombarded. During this time there, … To Vilanesa, a communist group assaults the labor-union office CNT, all the presents are murdered.

  • May 1st, 1937, the unitarian labor-union parades are cancelled.

  • 3-15 in May, 1937, communist counter-revolution in Barcelona. Troops try to assault certain buildings controlled by the CNT. Several hundred activists of the POUM, the CNT and the FJIL disappear, are murdered, among the most famous: André Nin (managing of the POUM), Camillo Berneri (militating Italian anarchist).

  • May-September, 1937, the Stalinist prisons fill of fighting antifascists. The troops of general Lister (communist) destroy communities autoadministrators of Aragon who are reconstituted after its passage. Dissolution of the council of defense of Aragon. Fall of the government Caballero, the departure of the anarchistic Secretaries. The new government restores the superiority of the private property on collectivizations.

  • . May-June, 1937, international congress of AIT. Later of bitter discuss, the official positions of the CNT are approved. The CNT establishes: antifascist International Solidarity (SIA) the objective of which is to organize the international mutual aid with Spain.

  • Winters 1937-1938, fight around Teruel. At first taken by the republicans, this city will be taken back by the fascist troops in February, 1938. On proposal of the English government, the government Negrin accepts the dissolution and the retreat of the international brigades.

  • Mars 1938, new unitarian platform CNT-UGT.

  • July-August, 1938: battle of the Ebro. Defeat of the republican army. The nationalization of the industry ends the control of factories by the workers and their labor unions. In Madrid and in Catalonia the federation of the steelworkers CNT refuses this dictat.

  • September, 1938, Munich agreement enter on one hand France and England and on the other hand Germany and fascist Italy ends the hopes of anti-fascist Spain.

  • 1939, offensive against Barcelona (in February) and Madrid (March). At the beginning of “Retirada”, 500 000 people pass by Pyrenees. The fighters are parked in concentration camps.

  • April 1st 1939, at the end of the fights. The pro-Franco repression becomes intensified hundreds of thousand individuals are shot, so much are imprisoned, deported, …

  • 1939, Hitler and Stalin sign the pact " German Soviet ". Their armies invade Poland what will activate the World War II.

  • August 24th, 1944: the 9è company of the 2è DB enters Paris. This company is almost constituted by antifascists Spanish (socialists, communists, anarchists, etc.)

  • 1944 - 1975: the War is finished, but it fights continuous. Resistance movements will be active till the end of the fifties. The brothers Sabate (arrested in 60’s), the group of May 1st (1964) or Salvador Puig Antich will be the most visible companions of this fight against the Francoism.


Initials

  • AIT: international Association of the Work

  • CNT: national Confederacy of the Work (anarcho-union activist)

  • FAI: iberian Anarchistic Federation

  • FJIL: federation of the Iberian Youths Libertarians

  • ML: Mujères Libres Fédération of the groups Free Women

  • SIA: antifascist International Solidarity

  • PCE: Spanish Communist Party

  • PSUC: communist Party in Catalonia

  • JSU: communist Youth

  • PSOE: Spanish Socialist Workers' Party

  • UGT: general Union of the Workers (socialist)

  • POUM: labor Party of Marxist Unification (anti-Stalinist)

  • UHP: union of the Brothers Proletarians (including unitarian Committee: anarchists, socialists, communists, Trotskyists)

  • CEDA: Spanish autonomous Confederacy of the rights